What’s the Real History of Black Friday?

It makes sense that the term “Black Friday” might refer to the single day of the year when retail companies finally go “into the black” (i.e. make a profit). The day after Thanksgiving is, of course, when crowds of turkey-stuffed shoppers descend on stores all over the country to take advantage of the season’s biggest holiday bargains. But the real story behind Black Friday is a bit more complicated—and darker—than that.

The first recorded use of the term “Black Friday” was applied not to holiday shopping but to financial crisis: specifically, the crash of the U.S. gold market on September 24, 1869. Two notoriously ruthless Wall Street financiers, Jay Gould and Jim Fisk, worked together to buy up as much as they could of the nation’s gold, hoping to drive the price sky-high and sell it for astonishing profits. On that Friday in September, the conspiracy finally unraveled, sending the stock market into free-fall and bankrupting everyone from Wall Street barons to farmers.

The most commonly repeated story behind the post-Thanksgiving shopping-related Black Friday tradition links it to retailers. As the story goes, after an entire year of operating at a loss (“in the red”) stores would supposedly earn a profit (“went into the black”) on the day after Thanksgiving, because holiday shoppers blew so much money on discounted merchandise. Though it’s true that retail companies used to record losses in red and profits in black when doing their accounting, this version of Black Friday’s origin is the officially sanctioned—but inaccurate—story behind the tradition.

In recent years, another myth has surfaced that gives a particularly ugly twist to the tradition, claiming that back in the 1800s Southern plantation owners could buy slaves at a discount on the day after Thanksgiving. Though this version of Black Friday’s roots has understandably led some to call for a boycott of the retail holiday, it has no basis in fact.

The true story behind Black Friday, however, is not as sunny as retailers might have you believe. Back in the 1950s, police in the city of Philadelphia used the term to describe the chaos that ensued on the day after Thanksgiving, when hordes of suburban shoppers and tourists flooded into the city in advance of the big Army-Navy football game held on that Saturday every year. Not only would Philly cops not be able to take the day off, but they would have to work extra-long shifts dealing with the additional crowds and traffic. Shoplifters would also take advantage of the bedlam in stores to make off with merchandise, adding to the law enforcement headache.

Nigeria was not left out of the Worlds Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving where stores open early andbslash prices of goods to kick off the holiday shopping season. But a group condemning the participation of blacks in the sales day say it stemmed from slavery.Image result for the story behind black friday

“This was the day after Thanksgiving when slave traders would sell slaves for a discount to assist plantation owners with more helpers for the upcoming winter (for cutting and stacking fire wood, winter proofing etc.), hence the name”

By 1961, “Black Friday” had caught on in Philadelphia, to the extent that the city’s merchants and boosters tried unsuccessfully to change it to “Big Friday” in order to remove the negative connotations. The term didn’t spread to the rest of the country until much later, however, and as recently as 1985 it wasn’t in common use nationwide. Sometime in the late 1980s, however, retailers found a way to reinvent Black Friday and turn it into something that reflected positively, rather than negatively, on them and their customers. The result was the “red to black” concept of the holiday mentioned earlier, and the notion that the day after Thanksgiving marked the occasion when America’s stores finally turned a profit. (In fact, stores traditionally see bigger sales on the Saturday before Christmas.)Image result for the story behind black friday

The Black Friday story stuck, and pretty soon the term’s darker roots in Philadelphia were largely forgotten. Since then, the one-day sales bonanza has morphed into a four-day event, and spawned other “retail holidays” such as Small Business Saturday/Sunday and Cyber Monday. Stores started opening earlier and earlier on that Friday, and now the most dedicated shoppers can head out right after their Thanksgiving meal. According to a pre-holiday survey this year by the National Retail Federation, an estimated 135.8 million Americans definitely plan to shop over the Thanksgiving weekend (58.7 percent of those surveyed), though even more (183.8 million, or 79.6 percent) said they would or might take advantage of the online deals offered on Cyber Monday.

THE REAL STORY OF THANKSGIVING

In 1621, the Plymouth colonists and Wampanoag Indians shared an autumn harvest feast that is acknowledged today as one of the first Thanksgiving celebrations in the colonies. For more than two centuries, days of thanksgiving were celebrated by individual colonies and states. It wasn’t until 1863, in the midst of the Civil War, that President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national Thanksgiving Day to be held each November.In September 1620, a small ship called the Mayflower left Plymouth, England, carrying 102 passengers—an assortment of religious separatists seeking a new home where they could freely practice their faith and other individuals lured by the promise of prosperity and land ownership in the New World. After a treacherous and uncomfortable crossing that lasted 66 days, they dropped anchor near the tip of Cape Cod, far north of their intended destination at the mouth of the Hudson River. One month later, the Mayflower crossed Massachusetts Bay, where the Pilgrims, as they are now commonly known, began the work of establishing a village at Plymouth.Image result for what is the story of the first thanksgiving

Throughout that first brutal winter, most of the colonists remained on board the ship, where they suffered from exposure, scurvy and outbreaks of contagious disease. Only half of the Mayflower’s original passengers and crew lived to see their first New England spring. In March, the remaining settlers moved ashore, where they received an astonishing visit from an Abenaki Indian who greeted them in English. Several days later, he returned with another Native American, Squanto, a member of the Pawtuxet tribe who had been kidnapped by an English sea captain and sold into slavery before escaping to London and returning to his homeland on an exploratory expedition. Squanto taught the Pilgrims, weakened by malnutrition and illness, how to cultivate corn, extract sap from maple trees, catch fish in the rivers and avoid poisonous plants. He also helped the settlers forge an alliance with the Wampanoag, a local tribe, which would endure for more than 50 years and tragically remains one of the sole examples of harmony between European colonists and Native Americans.

In November 1621, after the Pilgrims’ first corn harvest proved successful, Governor William Bradford organized a celebratory feast and invited a group of the fledgling colony’s Native American allies, including the Wampanoag chief Massasoit. Now remembered as American’s “first Thanksgiving”—although the Pilgrims themselves may not have used the term at the time—the festival lasted for three days. While no record exists of the historic banquet’s exact menu, the Pilgrim chronicler Edward Winslow wrote in his journal that Governor Bradford sent four men on a “fowling” mission in preparation for the event, and that the Wampanoag guests arrived bearing five deer. Historians have suggested that many of the dishes were likely prepared using traditional Native American spices and cooking methods. Because the Pilgrims had no oven and the Mayflower’s sugar supply had dwindled by the fall of 1621, the meal did not feature pies, cakes or other desserts, which have become a hallmark of contemporary celebrations.Image result for what is the story of the first thanksgiving

Pilgrims held their second Thanksgiving celebration in 1623 to mark the end of a long drought that had threatened the year’s harvest and prompted Governor Bradford to call for a religious fast. Days of fasting and thanksgiving on an annual or occasional basis became common practice in other New England settlements as well. During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress designated one or more days of thanksgiving a year, and in 1789 George Washington issued the first Thanksgiving proclamation by the national government of the United States; in it, he called upon Americans to express their gratitude for the happy conclusion to the country’s war of independence and the successful ratification of the U.S. Constitution. His successors John Adams and James Madison also designated days of thanks during their presidencies.

In 1817, New York became the first of several states to officially adopt an annual Thanksgiving holiday; each celebrated it on a different day, however, and the American South remained largely unfamiliar with the tradition. In 1827, the noted magazine editor and prolific writer Sarah Josepha Hale—author, among countless other things, of the nursery rhyme “Mary Had a Little Lamb”—launched a campaign to establish Thanksgiving as a national holiday. For 36 years, she published numerous editorials and sent scores of letters to governors, senators, presidents and other politicians. Abraham Lincoln finally heeded her request in 1863, at the height of the Civil War, in a proclamation entreating all Americans to ask God to “commend to his tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife” and to “heal the wounds of the nation.” He scheduled Thanksgiving for the final Thursday in November, and it was celebrated on that day every year until 1939, when Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the holiday up a week in an attempt to spur retail sales during the Great Depression. Roosevelt’s plan, known derisively as Franksgiving, was met with passionate opposition, and in 1941 the president reluctantly signed a bill making Thanksgiving the fourth Thursday in November.

In many American households, the Thanksgiving celebration has lost much of its original religious significance; instead, it now centers on cooking and sharing a bountiful meal with family and friends. Turkey, a Thanksgiving staple so ubiquitous it has become all but synonymous with the holiday, may or may not have been on offer when the Pilgrims hosted the inaugural feast in 1621. Today, however, nearly 90 percent of Americans eat the bird—whether roasted, baked or deep-fried—on Thanksgiving, according to the National Turkey Federation. Other traditional foods include stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. Volunteering is a common Thanksgiving Day activity, and communities often hold food drives and host free dinners for the less fortunate.

Parades have also become an integral part of the holiday in cities and towns across the United States. Presented by Macy’s department store since 1924, New York City’s Thanksgiving Day parade is the largest and most famous, attracting some 2 to 3 million spectators along its 2.5-mile route and drawing an enormous television audience. It typically features marching bands, performers, elaborate floats conveying various celebrities and giant balloons shaped like cartoon characters.

Beginning in the mid-20th century and perhaps even earlier, the president of the United States has “pardoned” one or two Thanksgiving turkeys each year, sparing the birds from slaughter and sending them to a farm for retirement. A number of U.S. governors also perform the annual turkey pardoning ritual.

For some scholars, the jury is still out on whether the feast at Plymouth really constituted the first Thanksgiving in the United States. Indeed, historians have recorded other ceremonies of thanks among European settlers in North America that predate the Pilgrims’ celebration. In 1565, for instance, the Spanish explorer Pedro Menéndez de Avilé invited members of the local Timucua tribe to a dinner in St. Augustine, Florida, after holding a mass to thank God for his crew’s safe arrival. On December 4, 1619, when 38 British settlers reached a site known as Berkeley Hundred on the banks of Virginia’s James River, they read a proclamation designating the date as “a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.”

Some Native Americans and others take issue with how the Thanksgiving story is presented to the American public, and especially to schoolchildren. In their view, the traditional narrative paints a deceptively sunny portrait of relations between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag people, masking the long and bloody history of conflict between Native Americans and European settlers that resulted in the deaths of millions. Since 1970, protesters have gathered on the day designated as Thanksgiving at the top of Cole’s Hill, which overlooks Plymouth Rock, to commemorate a “National Day of Mourning.” Similar events are held in other parts of the country.

Although the American concept of Thanksgiving developed in the colonies of New England, its roots can be traced back to the other side of the Atlantic. Both the Separatists who came over on the Mayflower and the Puritans who arrived soon after brought with them a tradition of providential holidays—days of fasting during difficult or pivotal moments and days of feasting and celebration to thank God in times of plenty.

As an annual celebration of the harvest and its bounty, moreover, Thanksgiving falls under a category of festivals that spans cultures, continents and millennia. In ancient times, the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans feasted and paid tribute to their gods after the fall harvest. Thanksgiving also bears a resemblance to the ancient Jewish harvest festival of Sukkot. Finally, historians have noted that Native Americans had a rich tradition of commemorating the fall harvest with feasting and merrymaking long before Europeans set foot on their shores.

 

Proven Health Benefits of Garlic

Garlic Contains a Compound Called Allicin, Which Has Potent Medicinal Properties

Garlic is a plant in the Allium (onion) family.

It is closely related to onions, shallots and leeks.

It grows in many parts of the world and is a popular ingredient in cooking due to its strong smell and delicious taste.

However, throughout ancient history, the main use of garlic was for its health and medicinal properties.

Its use was well documented by all the major civilizations… including the Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans and the Chinese.

The entire “head” is called a garlic bulb, while each segment is called a clove. There are about 10-20 cloves in a single bulb, give or take.

We now know that most of the health effects are caused by one of the sulfur compounds formed when a garlic clove is chopped, crushed or chewed.

This compound is known as allicin, and is also responsible for the distinct garlic smell.

Allicin enters the body from the digestive tract and travels all over the body, where it exerts its potent biological effects (which we’ll get to in a bit).

Garlic Is Highly Nutritious, But Has Very Few Calories

 

Calorie for calorie, garlic is incredibly nutritious.

A 1 ounce (28 grams) serving of garlic contains:

  • Manganese: 23% of the RDA.
  • Vitamin B6: 17% of the RDA.
  • Vitamin C: 15% of the RDA.
  • Selenium: 6% of the RDA.
  • Fiber: 1 gram.
  • Decent amounts of calcium, copper, potassium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B1.

Garlic also contains trace amounts of various other nutrients. In fact, it contains a little bit of almost everything we need.

This is coming with 42 calories, with 1.8 grams of protein and 9 grams of carbs.

Bottom Line: Garlic is low in calories and very rich in Vitamin C, Vitamin B6 and Manganese. It also contains trace amounts of various other nutrients.

Garlic Can Combat Sickness, Including the Common Cold

 

Garlic supplementation is known to boost the function of the immune system.

One large 12-week study found that a daily garlic supplement reduced the number of colds by 63% compared with placebo.

The average length of cold symptoms was also reduced by 70%, from 5 days in placebo to just 1.5 days in the garlic group.

Another study found that a high dose of garlic extract (2.56 grams per day) can reduce the number of days sick with cold or flu by 61%.

If you often get colds, then adding garlic to your diet could be incredibly helpful.

Bottom Line: Garlic supplementation helps to prevent and reduce the severity of common illnesses like the flu and common cold.

The Active Compounds in Garlic Can Reduce Blood Pressure

 

Cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks and strokes are the world’s biggest killers.

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is one of the most important drivers of these diseases.

Human studies have found garlic supplementation to have a significant impact on reducing blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.

In one study, aged garlic extract at doses of 600-1,500 mg was just as effective as the drug Atenolol at reducing blood pressure over a 24 week period.

Supplement doses must be fairly high to have these desired effects. The amount of allicin needed is equivalent to about four cloves of garlic per day.

Garlic Improves Cholesterol Levels, Which May Lower The Risk of Heart Disease

 

Garlic can lower Total and LDL cholesterol.

For those with high cholesterol, garlic supplementation appears to reduce total and/or LDL cholesterol by about 10-15%.

Looking at LDL (the “bad”) and HDL (the “good”) cholesterol specifically, garlic appears to lower LDL but has no reliable effect on HDL.

Garlic does not appear to lower triglyceride levels, another known risk factor for heart disease.

Bottom Line: Garlic supplementation seems to reduce total and LDL cholesterol, particularly in those who have high cholesterol. HDL cholesterol and triglycerides do not seem to be affected.

Garlic Contains Antioxidants That May Help Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

 

Oxidative damage from free radicals contributes to the aging process.

Garlic contains antioxidants that support the body’s protective mechanisms against oxidative damage.

High doses of garlic supplements have been shown to increase antioxidant enzymes in humans, as well as significantly reduce oxidative stress in those with high blood pressure.

The combined effects on reducing cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as the antioxidant properties, may help prevent common brain diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Bottom Line: Garlic contains antioxidants that protect against cell damage and ageing. It may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

7. Garlic May Help You Live Longer

 

Effects on longevity are basically impossible to prove in humans.

But given the beneficial effects on important risk factors like blood pressure, it makes sense that garlic could help you live longer.

The fact that it can fight infectious disease is also an important factor, because these are common causes of death, especially in the elderly or people with dysfunctional immune systems.

Bottom Line: Garlic has known beneficial effects on common causes of chronic disease, so it makes perfect sense that it could help you live longer.

8. Athletic Performance Can be Improved With Garlic Supplementation

 

Garlic was one of the earliest “performance enhancing” substances.

It was traditionally used in ancient cultures to reduce fatigue and enhance the work capacity of labourers.

Most notably, it was administered to Olympic athletes in ancient Greece.

Rodent studies have shown that garlic helps with exercise performance, but very few human studies have been done.

Subjects with heart disease that took garlic oil for 6 weeks had a reduction in peak heart rate of 12% and improved their exercise capacity.

However, a study on nine competitive cyclists found no performance benefits.

Other studies suggest that exercise-induced fatigue may be reduced with garlic.

Bottom Line: Garlic can improve physical performance in lab animals and people with heart disease. Benefits in healthy people are not yet conclusive.

9. Eating Garlic Can Help Detoxify Heavy Metals in the Body

 

At high doses, the sulfur compounds in garlic have been shown to protect against organ damage from heavy metal toxicity.

A four week study in employees of a car battery plant (excessive exposure to lead) found that garlic reduced lead levels in the blood by 19%. It also reduced many clinical signs of toxicity, including headaches and blood pressure.

Three doses of garlic each day even outperformed the drug D-penicillamine in symptom reduction.

Bottom Line: Garlic was shown to significantly reduce lead toxicity and related symptoms in one study.

10. Garlic May Improve Bone Health

 

No human trials have measured the effects of garlic on bone loss.

However, rodent studies have shown that it can minimise bone loss by increasing estrogen in females.

One study in menopausal women found that a daily dose of dry garlic extract (equal to 2 grams of raw garlic) significantly decreased a marker of estrogen deficiency.

This suggests that this garlic may have beneficial effects on bone health in women.

Foods like garlic and onions have also been shown to have beneficial effects on osteoarthritis.

Bottom Line: Garlic appears to have some benefits for bone health by increasing estrogen levels in females, but more human studies are needed.

11. Garlic Is Easy to Include In Your Diet and Tastes Absolutely Delicious

 

The last one is not a health benefit, but still important.

It is the fact that it is very easy (and delicious) to include garlic in your current diet.

It complements most savory dishes, particularly soups and sauces. The strong taste of garlic can also add a punch to otherwise bland recipes.

Garlic comes in several forms, from whole cloves and smooth pastes to powders and supplements like garlic extract and garlic oil.

The minimum effective dose for therapeutic effects is one clove eaten with meals, two or three times a day.

However, keep in mind that there are some downsides to garlic, such as bad breath. There are also some people who are allergic to it.

If you have a bleeding disorder or are taking blood thinning medications, then talk to your doctor before increasing your garlic consumption.

The active compound allicin only forms when garlic is crushed or cleaved when it is raw. If you cook it before crushing it, then it won’t have the same health effects.

Therefore, the best way to consume garlic is raw, or to crush and cut it and leave it out for a while before you add it to your recipes.

My favorite way to use garlic is to press a few cloves of fresh garlic with a garlic press, then mix with extra virgin olive oil and a bit of salt. This a healthy and super satisfying dressing.

The Benefits of Lemon Water: Detox Your Body & Skin

What drink is insanely inexpensive to make, keeps skin glowing, aids in digestion, can help you lose weight and is packed with vitamin C? No, it’s not an elixir sold on late-night infomercials. It’s lemon water.

While those in the know have been chugging down the citrus-flavored water for ages (think since ancient Rome), some lemon water benefits have just begun making the rounds on the health and fitness circuit in recent months. But is lemon water really the cure-all it’s purported to be or just another health fad? Let’s dig in.


Lemon Water Nutrition Facts

Lemons are loaded with healthy benefits, and particularly, they’re a great vitamin C food source. One cup of fresh lemon juice provides 187 percent of your daily recommended serving of vitamin C — take that, oranges! Lemon juice also offers up a healthy serving of potassium, magnesium and copper.

Check out what other benefits one cup of fresh lemon juice adds to a plain glass of water. Here are some lemon water nutrition facts:

  • 61 calories
  • 3 grams protein
  • 6 grams sugar
  • 0 grams fat
  • 112 milligrams vitamin C (187 percent DV)
  • 303 milligrams potassium (9 percent DV)
  • 31.7 micrograms folate (8 percent DV)
  • 0.1 milligrams vitamin B6 (6 percent DV)
  • 0.1 milligrams thiamin (5 percent DV)
  • 0.1 milligrams copper (4 percent DV)
  • 1 gram fiber (4 percent DV)
  • 14.6 milligrams magnesium (4 percent DV)
  • 0.4 milligrams vitamin E (2 percent DV)

5 Benefits of Lemon Water

For such a simple drink, the list of lemon water benefits is impressive. Even if you’re not a big H2O drinker, you might find yourself reaching for a glass when you check out how awesome it is for your body and mind!

1. Aids in digestion and detoxification

Because lemon juice’s atomic structure is similar to the digestive juices found in the stomach, it tricks the liver into producing bile, which helps keep food moving through your body and gastrointestinal tract smoothly. Lemon water also helps relieve indigestion or ease an upset stomach.

The acids found in lemon juice also encourage your body to process the good stuff in foods more slowly. This drawn-out absorption means insulin levels remain steady and you get more nutrients out of the foods you consume. Better nutrient absorption means less bloating. Lemon water benefits the enzyme functions in your body, stimulating the liver and flushing out toxins. Because it’s a mild diuretic, you might find yourself using the bathroom more often, helping the urinary tract get rid of any unwanted elements. All of this helps detox body & skin.

2. Bumps up the vitamin C quotient

Since your body doesn’t make vitamin C on its own, it’s important to get enough of it from the foods and drinks you ingest. Luckily, lemons are chock-full of the vitamin.

What are the benefit of getting enough vitamineC? It stimulates white blood cell production, vital for your immune system to function properly. As an antioxidant, vitamin C also protects cells from oxidative damage. Plus, getting enough vitamin C helps the immune system keep colds and flu at base. Drinking lemon water daily ensures your body gets a sizable amount of vitamin C daily.

3. Rejuvenates skin and heals the body

The antioxidants found in vitamin C do double duty in lemon water. They fight damaged cause by free radicals, keeping your skin looking fresh. Getting enough vitamin C from your lemon water also keeps the body producing collagen, essential in smoothing out lines in the face. And, in one recent study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, regularly consuming vitamin C led to younger-looking skin and less wrinkles.

4. Helps shed pounds

Regularly sipping on lemon water can help you lose those last pounds. That’s because lemons contain pectin, a type of fiber commonly found in fruits. Pectin helps you feel full longer; that satiated feeling means you’ll chow down less throughout the day. Plus, did you know that when you’re even mildly dehydrated, you’re more prone to things like headaches, fatigue and an overall bad mood? Chugging down lemon water helps your body stay hydrated and feeling happy.

5. Boosts energy and mood

Skip the morning cup of coffee — lemon water can boost energy levels without the caffeine crash. Here’s how it works: Our bodies get energy from the atoms and molecules in foods. When negative-charged ions, like those found in lemons, enter your digestive tract, the result is an increase in energy levels au naturel.

Additionally, just the scent of a lemon has been found to reduce stress levels and improve moods. Don’t forget to offer a glass to grumpy co-workers or family members.


History and Interesting Facts About Lemon Water

Here are some interesting lemon water facts & history: Until about the 10th century,lemons were used mainly as decorative plants. The Crusades in the 11th century brought the plant into Europe, and it made its first appearance in the New World in the late 1400s. Lemons and other vitamis Creach-boost were particularly treasured for their ability to ward off scurvy. Today, the main producers of lemons include Italy, Greece, Spain, Turkey and the U.S.

And though I love the benefits of lemon water, there are tons of ways to use lemons. Here are some of my favorites:

Deodorize your kitchen naturally. Add one cup of lemon juice to the dishwasher, and run it on the rinse cycle to disinfect and rid it of any lingering odors and deodorize your kitchen naturally. Need to clear up a bad kitchen smell? Add fresh lemon peels, cinnamon sticks and cloves to a pot of water and simmer on the stove.

Use lemon essential oil regularly. Mix lemon essential oil, baking soda and coconut oil and rub on teeth. Leave for two minutes to reap the effects of this natural tooth whitener. Mix lemon oil, baking soda and honey for an all-natural face wash. Need to spruce up your silver before company comes over? A lemon oil-soaked cloth will get rid of tarnishes quickly.

Catholic Bishops Challenge Donald Trump on Immigration

Two nights after Donald J. Trump won the presidential election, Archbishop José H. Gomez convened an interfaith prayer service at the Roman Catholic cathedral in Los Angeles and gave an emotional homilyvowing not to abandon children and parents who are living in fear that Mr. Trump will follow through on his promise to deport millions of immigrants.

“This should not be happening in America,” said Archbishop Gomez, who is himself an immigrant from Mexico and a naturalized United States citizen. “We are not this kind of people. We are better than this.”

Five days later, on Tuesday, Archbishop Gomez was elected by his brother bishops at their meeting in Baltimore to be vice president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. With nine candidates in the running— including some prominent prelates — it was the day’s most closely watched vote, especially since the vice president is traditionally elevated to president in three years. Keeping to custom, the bishops voted to bump up Cardinal Daniel N. DiNardo, archbishop of Galveston-Houston, to president.

The choice of Archbishop Gomez was only one sign that Catholic bishops are preparing to defend immigrants and refugees against a newly elected president who has threatened deportations and who critics say has uncorked an ugly backlash against immigrants and minorities. They opened their meeting by endorsing a strongly worded letter to Mr. Trump that extended congratulations but also put him on notice that the church was committed to resettling refugees and keeping immigrant families intact.

“A lot of bishops told me they were surprised by the actual fear they were hearing on the ground,” said Dylan Corbett, the executive director of the Hope Border Institute, an advocacy group on United States-Mexico border issues. He formerly worked for the bishops’ conference and attended the meeting in Baltimore.

In the past week, Latino parishioners and students at Catholic colleges have been “turning to the church, calling their pastors, and pastors are calling their bishops and asking what to expect,” Mr. Corbett said. “The bishops wanted to send a clear message of solidarity.”

On many other priorities, the bishops may find common cause with Mr. Trump. They are eager to see him follow through with campaign promises to end or limit abortion, reverse the contraception mandate in the Affordable Care Act and create exemptions for religious people and institutions objecting to same-sex marriage.

However, the protection of immigrants is not only a biblical imperative for Catholic leaders but also a matter of pastoral care: More than one-third of American Catholics are now Latinos, and many others are immigrants from dozens of other countries. Latinos represent the future of the church: Sixty percent of Catholics in the United States younger than 18 are Latino, and 90 percent of them were born here.

“The bishops of the United States recognize the presence of Latinos in our community, in our country and also in the church,” Archbishop Gomez said of his election at a news conference in Baltimore. “I think our mission is to help people be united in our country, and have hope.”

Archbishop Gomez is in line to become the first Latino president of the bishops conference. He was appointed to lead the Los Angeles archdiocese, the largest in the nation, in 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI, who preceded Pope Francis. The archbishop is a member of the Catholic group Opus Dei and is seen as a conservative on doctrine. It surprised many church observers when Pope Francis recently passed over Archbishop Gomez in naming new cardinals — three from the United States — because Los Angeles is usually a cardinal’s seat.

Beginning in January, Catholic dioceses are undertaking a nearly two-year initiative to reach out to Hispanic Catholics and better integrate them into the church. Pope Francis, the first pope from Latin America, applauded the effort in a video message to the bishops, suggesting that it could have a broader impact “for a society gripped by disconcerting social, cultural and spiritual shifts, and increasing polarization.”

The election starkly revealed the polarization not only within the country, but also within the church. White Catholics preferred Mr. Trump over Hillary Clinton, 60 percent to 37 percent, while Hispanic Catholics favored Mrs. Clinton over Mr. Trump, 67 percent to 26 percent, according to an analysis by the Pew Research Center. The Catholic Church is the largest in the country, with 68 million members and about 23 percent of the electorate.

Pope Francis Eases Path to Absolution for Abortion

ROME — Pope Francis announced Tuesday that all Roman Catholic priests would be empowered to offer absolution for the “sin of abortion” during the church’s Holy Year of Mercy, which begins in December.

“I have met so many women who bear in their heart the scar of this agonizing and painful decision,” Francis said in a statement issued by the Vatican. “What has happened is profoundly unjust; yet only understanding the truth of it can enable one not to lose hope.”

Francis’ offer is not without precedent — Pope John Paul II enabled priests to offer the same absolution during the last Holy Year, in 2000 — yet it shows his broader push to make Catholicism more merciful and welcoming.

Later this month, Francis is scheduled to visit Cuba and the United States and then return to the Vatican for a pivotal October meeting on whether the church will soften its approach on social issues like homosexuality and whether Catholics who have divorced and remarried without an annulment may receive the sacraments.

Vatican officials noted that Francis is not changing his opposition to abortion, nor is the church. Under Roman Catholic canon law, abortion brings automatic excommunication unless the person receiving or performing it confesses and receives absolution. Abortion is considered a “reserved sin,” meaning that permission to grant forgiveness usually must come from a bishop.

Though most bishops in the United States have already empowered their priests on the issue, many in other countries have not — meaning women seeking absolution can face delays, obstacles or rejection. Francis’ edict effectively streamlines the process for a single year.

“All priests will be ready to absolve women who have had an abortion and have repented — all over the world, for a whole year,” said the Rev. Federico Lombardi, the Vatican’s chief spokesman. “It’s a widening of the church’s mercy on what is such a dramatic and widespread issue.”

Candida R. Moss, professor of New Testament and early Christianity at the University of Notre Dame, said that Francis’ statement was not a doctrinal shift, but that it might serve to alert women who have felt disenfranchised by the church that they are welcome to return. “Even though John Paul II used much the same language, and forgiveness has always been available — albeit through more formal channels — that message wasn’t out there because the rhetoric that accompanies abortion is so elevated that it eclipses the church’s teaching on forgiveness and mercy,” she said in a statement.

Popes have been celebrating holy years since 1300, when Boniface VIII summoned pilgrims to Rome because travel to the Holy Land was too dangerous. Traditionally, the church has offered indulgences for an array of sins during these “Jubilee” years, which are celebrated every 25 years. Christians are urged to do penance and, if possible, make a pilgrimage to Rome.

In March, Francis used his papal discretion to call the “extraordinary” jubilee that begins in December. Two months later, with less notice, the Vatican announced that during the Holy Year, priests would be able to offer absolution for abortion, a move likely to please many liberal Catholics.

Interestingly, Francis on Tuesday also made a move that may appeal to some conservative Catholics by including priests with the schismatic Society of St. Pius X among those empowered to offer indulgences during the Holy Year.

Known as the Lefebvrist movement, the Society of St. Pius X is a breakaway group of traditionalists who reject the reforms the Second Vatican Council approved in the 1960s. The previous pope, Benedict XVI, sought to repair their breach with the Vatican. But the effort foundered after it was discovered that one of their bishops was giving talks denying the extent of the Holocaust.

Reconciliation talks have continued under Francis, and he said in his statement on Tuesday, “I trust that in the near future, solutions may be found to recover full communion with the priests and superiors” of the society.

Francis has also sought to advance his environmental agenda, declaring Sept. 1 the first World Day of Prayer for Creation. When he announced it last month, he established it as an annual event and said he was following the lead of Orthodox Christian churches, which have been praying for the environment on this date for decades.

OUR FATHER WHO ART IN THE EVEN

Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy Name,
thy kingdom come,
thy will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those
who trespass against us.

And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.

For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever. Amen.
Read more at http://www.beliefnet.com/prayers/catholic/childrens-prayers/the-lords-prayer.aspx#eRxAKAEzW10YyoRr.99

LE NOTRE PERE

Notre Père qui es aux cieux,
que ton nom soit sanctifié,
que ton règne vienne
que ta volonté soit faite
sur la terre comme au ciel.

Donne-nous aujourd’hui notre pain de ce jour.
Pardonne-nous nos offenses
comme nous pardonnons aussi
à ceux qui nous ont offensés,
et ne nous laisse pas entrer dans la tentation,
mais délivre-nous du mal.

Car c’est à toi qu’appartiennent :
le règne la puissance et la gloire,
Aux siècles des siècles.
Amen.

Barcelone – Lionel Messi refuse de prolonger et sera libre en 2018

Lionel Messi, dont le contrat avec le FC Barcelone expire en juin 2018, refuse pour l’instant de prolonger. La « Pulga » veut prendre son temps pour décider de son avenir, qui s’écrit peut-être hors de la Catalogne.

Cette nouvelle a fait l’effet d’une bombe à Barcelone. En effet, Marca révèle en Une de son journal que Lionel Messi a refusé de prolonger son contrat au Barça en juillet dernier. Le quadruple Ballon d’Or veut être libre en juin 2018 pour décider de son avenir.

Depuis, les deux parties n’ont plus discuté et les dirigeants du FC Barcelone ne paniquent pas et laissent du temps à Messi pour réfléchir. De son côté, l’Argentin de 29 ans se pose des questions. À la fin de son contrat actuel, il aura 31 ans. Un âge précoce pour la retraite, et qui pose donc la question de son départ de chez les Blaugranas.

Lionel Messi va-t-il quitter son club de toujours ? Si oui, deux options se détachent. La première, celle d’un retour aux sources, en Argentine. Souvent critiqué par ses compatriotes pour n’avoir jamais porté les couleurs d’un club de son pays natal, le meilleur buteur de l’histoire du Barça pourrait décider de s’engager avec l’équipe de son cœur : les Newell’s Old Boys. La seconde serait de rejoindre Pep Guardiola, Txiki Begiristain et Ferran Soriano à Manchester City. Ce trio a déjà dirigé l’Argentin au FC Barcelone avec la réussite que l’on connaît.

Seule certitude, tant que Lionel Messi n’aura pas prolongé son contrat avec le FC Barcelone, les rumeurs vont affluer et la Catalogne va suffoquer et prier pour ne pas voir son fils prodigue quitter le bercail.